Some msr companies are working on fast reactors using chloride salts, including moltex, elysium, and terrapower in a project separate from their betterknown sodium cooled fast reactor. Sodium reactor experiment santa susana, ca july 1959. Treatment of residual sodium and sodium potassium from. Cho, seong kuk, lee, jekyoung, lee, jeong ik, and cha, jae eun. Ge hitachi awarded subcontract for work supporting. The heart of the sodium advanced fast reactor safr concept is a small, 330mw, sodium cooled reactor that can be built in the factory and shipped to the site by barge. What are the best generation 4 nuclear reactor designs. Sodiumcooled fast reactor an overview sciencedirect. Oct 08, 2019 schematic of a sodium cooled fast reactor. Program on science and global security and the nuclear futures laboratory. Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium cooled fast reactors. Sodiumcooled fast reactor sfr technology and safety overview.
Yes, sodium is a very reactive metal but it has some tremendous advantages. The sllim is a liquid sodium nuclear fast reactor that generates 10 to 100 mw for many years, even decades, without refueling. Simulation of reactor transient and design criteria of sodium. Reactor vessel sodium free surface is covered with inert gas, and the gap between reactor vessel and guard vessel as well as the gap between sodium pipe and guard pipe around it are also filled with inert gas. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle, raj, baldev. In particular, a sodium cooled fast reactor sfr has been focused as a new generation of nuclear power plants in korea. In this role, corbin works with experts on terrapowers engineering and fuels teams to provide additional definition, direction and oversight for twr research, testing and development. This allows for the coolant to operate at higher temperatures and lower pressures than current reactors improving the. While the oxygenfree environment prevents corrosion, sodium reacts chemically. Generation iv fast reactors university of cambridge. For a successful design and analysis of a sodium cooled fast reactor sfr, it is necessary to have a reliable and wellproven system analysis code.
Sodiumcooled fast reactors promise to definitely solve the fuel availability. A fast neutron reactor fnr or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons carrying energies above 0. In a sodium cooled fast reactor, commonly called a liquidmetal reactor lmr, the fuel consists of uranium dioxide or uraniumplutonium dioxide pellets french design or of uraniumplutoniumzirconium metal alloy pins u. Some issues of the current lightwater reactors can be solved by the next generation of nuclear power, generation iv, where sodium cooled. Attachment 2 demonstration sodiumcooled fast reactor ge. Appendix a fast reactor data pavel tsvetkov and alan waltar this appendix summarizes principal design data for fast spectrum reactors being developed, designed and constructed wor. Inherent prevention and mitigation of severe accident consequences in sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the rz power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors.
The sodium cooled fast reactor sfr gen iv system is considered to be the design with the greatest maturity for the burning of minor actinides ma because fast spectrum neutrons generally have a greater probability for the fission of ma than thermal. The european sustainable nuclear industrial initiative is funding three generation iv reactor systems, one of which is a sodium cooled fast reactor, called astrid, advanced sodium technical reactor for industrial demonstration, areva, cea and edf are leading the design with british collaboration. Mechanical design of a sodium cooled fast reactor fuel. Sodiumcooled fast reactor sfrs are designed for management of highlevel waste and, in particular, management of plutonium and other actinides. The prism moda reactor is a 471 mwt fast reactor that uses sodium coolant and metal fuel. Of course, thats the one im working on, but the reason im working on it is that we myself and 20 or so experts from wit. Gascooled fast reactor gfr sodium cooled fast reactor sfr leadcooled fast reactor lfr with the establishment of gif in 2001 and the launch of the project to design and build generation iv reactors, research on frs has intensi. A sodium cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium the acronym sfr particularly refers to two generation iv reactor proposals, one based on existing lmfr technology using mox fuel, the other based on the metalfueled integral fast reactor. Msrs offer multiple advantages over conventional nuclear power plants, although for historical reasons further explanation needed, they have not been deployed the concept was first established in the 1950s.
A program for studying compatibility of lead, bismuth, and their alloys. Study and evaluation of innovative fuel handling systems for. Three of the proposed generation iv reactor types are fast spectrum reactors 7. The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuellingdefueling process. Comparison of simple design of sodium and lead cooled. Regulatory technology development plan sodium fast. The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pooltype sodium fast reactors.
An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. Thermal stratification analysis for sodium fast reactors. Sodium cooled fast reactors sfr dr robert hill argonne national laboratory, usa. By far the most advanced of the six is the sodium cooled fast reactor sfr, developed by france, russia and. Sodium cooled fast reactor technology is suitable for reviving an industrial capability for their construction at home and internationally we have a legacy of sfr design and construction experience no large high pressure components are require except for steam generator watersteam headers. Design features of advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The most mature fast reactor technology, the sodium cooled fast reactor, has more than 400 reactor years of experience acquired through the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of experimental, prototype, demonstration and commercial units operating in a number of countries, including china, france, germany, india, japan, the. Ensuring the safety of advanced fast reactor design. Sodium is generally used in a type of reactor called a fast reactor, which relies on fast moving neutrons to operate water cannot be used as a coolant because it slows the neutrons in the reactor.
Two designs of sodiumcooled fast reactors sfr are currently in practice, viz. Engineers from ge hitachi nuclear energy will adapt the companys sodium cooled nuclear reactor design, shown in this rendering, to the needs of a fast spectrum versatile test reactor. The primary mission for the sfr is improved resource utilization, management of highlevel wastes and, in particular, management of plutonium and other actinides. Identify important differences between sodium and other fast reactor coolants leadlbe and helium and why sodium is preferred. In this paper, two fast reactor systems are discussed the sodiumcooled fast reactor, which has already been built and can be further improved, and the leadcooled fast reactor that could be developed relatively soon. The sodiumcooled fast reactor sfr gen iv system is considered to be the design with the greatest maturity for the burning of minor actinides ma because fast spectrum neutrons generally have a greater probability for the fission of ma than thermal. A sodium cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium the acronym sfr particularly refers to two generation iv reactor proposals, one based on existing lmfr technology using mox fuel, the other based on the metalfueled integral fast reactor several sodium cooled fast reactors have been built, some still in operation, and others are in planning or under construction. A summary of sodiumcooled fast reactor development. Fast reactors have the potential to enhance sustainability indices and correspond to crosscutting prerequisites for large scale introduction of nuclear energy in the worlds energy mix. The sodium advanced fast reactor safr modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of rockwell international, combustion engineering, and bechtel under the u. Oklo mini reactor in prelicensing discussions with nrc. Design solutions sodium in the primary system is blanketed with inert gas and is maintained in double containment. The reactor and steam generator are located upon a single seismic isolation pedestal. The genisotxs software allows users to use multigroup cross sections generated from serpent and openmc monte carlo codes for proteus as well as the conventional fast reactor.
In a sodiumcooled fast reactor, commonly called a liquidmetal reactor lmr, the fuel consists of uranium dioxide or uraniumplutonium dioxide pellets french design or of uraniumplutoniumzirconium metal alloy pins u. A molten salt reactor msr is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant andor the fuel is a molten salt mixture. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a sodium cooled fast reactor include an energetic core disruptive accident, vessel failure, and a large early release. Called a power pak by rockwell international, four power paks producing about 20 mw could make up a typical commericalscale generating station. Feb 28, 2020 im going to be completely biased and say that the leadcooled fast reactor has the most favorable overall characteristics. Presents design challenges for addressing sodium reactions. Jan 27, 2019 yes, sodium is a very reactive metal but it has some tremendous advantages. Mini reactors are going places and pack a lot of power. In that field, cea has engaged some innovation study either of complete fhr or on the.
Several sodiumcooled fast reactors have been built, some still in operation, and others are in planning or under construction. Pseudo 3d fullcore conjugate heat transfer modeling of. The sodium cooled fast reactor sfr uses liquid metal sodium as a coolant instead of water that is typically used in u. Sodium cooled fast reactor design principles and approach ii seminar at kaist april 24, 20 yoon il chang visiting professor, kaist world class university. Cahalans 68 research works with 483 citations and 1,591 reads, including. French sodiumcooled fast reactor simulation program. Introduction one important design requirement for sodium cooled fast reactors sfr is the knowledge of the temperature on the hexagonal ducts for a thermomechanical analysis.
The current status of nuclear power and sfr design technology development program in korea will be discussed. The operators achieved the initial criticality of the reactor core on april 25, 1957, and supplied electricity to the power grid for the first time on july 12, 1957. Changing an fbr design to fnr involves removing the 238 u blanket and installing stainless steel or equivalent neutron reflectors. Characterize the nature of sodium interactions with air and water. A safety design approach for sodium cooled fast reactor core toward. Argonnes reactor design simulation software is central to our commitment to these founding principles. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle is a valuable reference for industry professionals involved in the construction of fast reactor power plants, as well as graduatelevel engineering students of the design and development of sodium cooled fast reactor systems and components. Japan sodium cooled fast reactor jsfr is a concept which has potential to achieve sustainable energy production, radioactive waste reduction, safety equal to the future light water reactor lwr and economic competitiveness against other future energy sources.
The sodium cooled fast reactor sfr system features a fast spectrum reactor and closed fuel recycle system. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of. One of the earlier efforts to devlop a mini reactor is the oklo micro reactor. Comparison of simple design of sodium and lead cooled fast. Technical meeting on innovative fast reactor designs with enhanced. A sodiumcooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium. The firm is developing a 2 mwe fast reactor using uzr metal fuel based on the fuel in ebrii, but with lower burnup. The most mature fast reactor technology, the sodium cooled fast reactor, has more than 400 reactoryears of experience acquired through the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of experimental, prototype, demonstration and commercial units operating in a number of countries, including china, france, germany, india, japan, the russian federation, the united kingdom and the united states.
The nea data bank provides nuclear data and computer program services. Rob corbin is chief engineer focusing on terrapowers development of sodium fast reactor technology. First of all, while it is reactive to air and water, it is not reactive to many metals including stainless steel. Chief engineer sodium fast reactor technology rob corbin is chief engineer focusing on terrapowers development of sodium fast reactor technology. The arc100 design creates a walk away passive safety system that ensures the reactor will never melt down even in a disaster that causes a complete loss of power to the plant site. Mechanical design of a sodium cooled fast reactor fuel assembly in korea. Experimental facilities for sodium fast reactor safety studies. This book puts the focus on the specialized topic of liquidmetal thermal hydraulics for advanced fast nuclear reactors, a discipline that is essential for liquidmetal fast reactor design and the subsequent safety assessment of the design and the reactor as built.
Why did terrapower choose use sodium instead of water, lead. Sodiumcooled fast reactor design principles and approach ii. International atomic energy agency, treatment of residual sodium and sodium potassium from fast reactors, iaeatecdoc1769, iaea, vienna 2015. A fast reactor is the most promising future nuclear power plant because of efficient usage of uranium and reduction of radioactive waste. Since its establishment in 1946, argonne national laboratory has ensured the safe, sustainable, and secure use of nuclear power worldwide. Since 1950s sodiumcooled fast reactors sfr have been developed.
Box 2528 idaho falls, id 834032528 the submitted manuscript has been created by the university of chicago. Why did terrapower choose use sodium instead of water. Meet the presenter robert hill is a senior nuclear engineering at argonne national laboratory, where he has worked for the last 29 years with research focused on reactor physics, fast reactor design. The mc 23 dif3d system has been extensively verified, validated using various numerous fast reactor experiments, and utilized for fast reactor design and analysis. Argonnes sas4asassys1 safety analysis code system is a simulation tool that can perform deterministic transient safety analysis of anticipated operational events, as well as designbasis and beyonddesignbasis accidents for advanced nuclear reactors. Construction of the sodium reactor experiment sre facility began in april 1955. Department of energys does advanced liquid metal reactor lmr program. International atomic energy agency, status and trends of nuclear fuels technology for sodium cooled fast reactors, nuclear energy series no. Sodium cooled fast reactor sfr the sfr uses liquid sodium as the reactor coolant, allowing high power density with low coolant volume fraction and operation at low pressure. Lead fast reactor, sodium fast reactor, pin design, mcnp 1.
High temperature is a property of all msrs i know of and does have some advantages, including better thermodynamic efficiency and usefulness for process heat. Uk fast reactors dounreay fast reactor dfr metal fuel, highly enriched u235u238 fuel, sodiumpotassium eutectic liquid metal coolant, 72mwth 19591977. The safr plant concept employs a 350mwe pooltype lmr power pak as its basic module. Prototype fast reactor pfr, also at dounreay mixed oxide fuel, puu238, sodium liquid metal coolant, 600mwth 19741994. To achieve this purpose, kaeri has been enhancing the modeling capability of the mars code by adding the sfrspecific thermalhydraulic models and reactivity feedback models. Introduction the aim of this paper is to assess and compare heat transfer in the fuel element and cooling channel of the fast neutron reactor in steady state conditions, cooled by liquid sodium and lead with speci. Generation iv reactor designs, aiming to develop a strategy for better. Status and trends of nuclear fuels technology for sodium.
Design features of advanced sodium cooled fast reactors with. A design workaround has been proposed to have an inert matrix. The sodiumcooled fast reactor is the candidate of generation iv that lies. Simulation of reactor transient and design criteria of. The agreement covers the period 20102019 until basic design studies for reactor. Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium. Simulation of reactor transient and design criteria of sodium cooled fast reactors filip gottfridsson the need for energy is growing in the world and the market of nuclear power is now once more expanding.
The long history of fast reactors and the promise of a closed. Fast breeder reactor advantages and disadvantages fast breeder reactor nuclear power plant reactor such reactors are designed to produce more fissile material plutonium than they consume thorium th232. Design concept of advanced sodiumcooled fast reactor and. Applicability this rg applies to nuclear power reactor designers, applicants, and licensees of nonlwr. The outlet temperature is 500550c for the options, which allows the use of the materials developed and proven in prior fast reactor programs. In addition, it can be fueled with the nuclear waste produced by traditional reactors, and its 20 year refueling cycle offers new levels of proliferation resistance. Khomyakov international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles fr09 challenges and opportunities december7 11, 2009, kyoto, japan. Sodiumcooled fast reactor an overview sciencedirect topics. Seriesreport no ss vii special session ss vii02 challenges of small modular reactors ii 00 smirt 24 busan, republic of korea.
Why is sodium used as a coolant for nuclear reactors. Turbomachinery technical conference and exposition. The united states has extensive experience with the design, construction, and operation of sodium. Open source molten salt nuclear reactor design hacker news. Fast reactor analysis capabilities after closure of historical facilities ebrii, fftf, treat, u. Understand how differences between sodium and water result in broad design differences between a sodium cooled fast reactor sfr and a. Design features of advanced sodium cooled fast reactors with emphasis on economics p. An accelerated development of the latter is possible.
The same cannot be said about lead or leadbismuth eu. The sodium fast reactor sfr is the most mature reactor concept of all the generationiv nuclear systems and is a promising reactor design that is currently under development by several organizations. While the oxygenfree environment prevents corrosion, sodium reacts chemically with air and water and requires a sealed coolant system. The majority of sodium fast reactor designs utilize a pool type arrangement which incorporates the. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. Sco2 turbine design for decay heat removal system of. The reactor uses a superheated steam energy conversion cycle, with a reactor coolant outlet. As a fast reactor, the sfr appeals to the gen iv requirements of greater fuel efficiency and the reduction in waste production. Sco 2 turbine design for decay heat removal system of sodium cooled fast reactor.783 839 65 1363 1372 1358 1011 1241 630 36 576 1086 421 857 1027 1410 580 460 365 352 702 357 30 314 723 679 1297 872 566 1376